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A Brief Introduction to the History of Television

The history of television could be said to have had its start near the end of the 19th century. Like many inventions, television didn’t happen overnight. It came in bits and pieces. For many of those still living today, television seemingly first burst upon the scene during the first years following World War II. In truth, there were television broadcasts taking place back in the 1930’s, although the viewing audiences were quite small, television sets were prohibitively expensive, and the television shows themselves were more or less novelties.

The CRT Started It All


Television could be said to have had its start with the invention of the radio, when it was discovered that voice could be transmitted over long distances through the ‘ether.’ It’s one thing to transmit voice however and quite something else to transmit an image. In 1878, a scientist named William Crookes invented the cathode ray tube (CRT). It is quite unlikely that Crookes had anything like television in mind. His purpose was to study the emission of radiation from a coated terminal called a cathode, and he needed an evacuated tube to conduct those studies. The CRT remained the central component in television technology until the advent of flat screen monitors.


The next step in the history of television occurred about a dozen years later when another scientist, Karl Ferdinan Braun developed a scanning device. Now the dot that the cathode ray formed in the cathode ray tube could be moved around, or at least up and down and sideways. Since the cathode ray beam could now be moved back and forth, forming what today is called a raster, the next logical step would be to figure out some way to modulate the beam to make it brighter or darker, thus producing an image. This didn’t happen all that quickly, although as far as the cathode ray tube itself was concerned, a number of scientists had taken up studying the device and its potential uses by the turn of the century. One such scientist, a Russian, introduced the term ‘television’ at the 1900 World’s Fair and went so far as to predict there would be color television transmissions in a hundred years’ time.


From CRT to Kinescope to Image Dissector


By 1907, cathode ray tube scanning had progressed to the point where a crude image could be viewed on a phosphorous-coated screen and 15 years later the first television transmitting tube, the iconoscope, and the first television receiver tube, the kinescope, were developed. By 1925 images of cartoon characters and recognizable images of human faces could be displayed, and moving objects were able to be displayed by 1926. A year later Philo Farnsworth applied for a patent on what would be the first compete television system. Farnsworth called it an Image Dissector. That same year, Bell Labs gave the first public demonstration of television. Herbert Hoover, yet to be president, was in attendance.


Viewing a 40 minute Program on a 2-Inch Screen


The first experimental television station, WGY-TV produced a 40-minute program in 1928. The viewing audience consisted of those clustered around four television sets. Plans were afoot at the time to broadcast “radio movies.” By 1929 RCA was broadcasting television programs two hours a day. The standard television receiver at that time had a 2-inch screen. The first color television system was demonstrated in 1929 also.


CBS began experimental programming in 1931 and NBC got into the act a year later. The first large scale news event to be televised was that of the coronation of King George VI in London in 1937. There were two thousand television sets in existence in England at the time. The Wimbledon tennis finals were also broadcast.


Television viewing slowly became more widespread in the United States by 1939 as the first major league baseball game and first NFL football game were broadcast in New York. President Roosevelt became the first president to appear on TV when the opening of the New York World’s Fair was televised. By 1941 there were an estimated 7,000 TV sets in the United States, but production was halted during World War II.


Howdy Doody, Uncle Miltie, and I Love Lucy


Events surrounding the history of television began to happen thick and fast following the end of the war. The first post-war television sets went on sale in 1946 and several networks began scheduling prime time programs. By 1947 the number of television sets in the U.S. had grown to over 44,000, and it was in 1947 that two of the more famous television programs, Howdy Doody and Meet the Press went on the air. By 1948 there were an estimated 350,000 sets in existence, Milton Berle was on the air, and cable TV was first introduced. By 1950 there were nearly 10 million sets in homes across the country.


I Love Lucy debuted in 1951 followed by the Today Show. Color television had its commercial introduction in 1954, the first satellite to send TV signals, Telstar, was launched in 1962, followed by Intelstat I in 1964. The next ten years saw the advent of the VCR, early flat-screen experiments, and the Cable News Network. The rest they say, is history.

Facts about Stretch Marks Removal

You have probably come across a TV ad promoting a stretch marks removal product. You’ve also probably thought of ways how to remove stretch marks. Millions of women are continuously seeking the perfect cream or home remedies for stretch mark removal. With the countless products available and marketers swearing by them, it’s hard to differentiate between fact and claim. The following guide will shed some light on stretch marks and their removal.

How stretch marks occur

A stretch mark is simply a break that occurs under the skins surface. This happens when the body grows abnormally causing skin cells to separate. The result is a scar which is commonly known as a stretch mark. Growth spurts like these happen during pregnancy or fast body growth during puberty and weight gain.


It’s hard to prevent development of stretch marks especially if the body is at a fast growth stage. There are creams touted to help prevent development of stretch marks. Most of these contain vitamins and moisturizers which help keep the skin nourished and smooth. Some women say that the creams help them prevent stretch mark development during pregnancy. However, there isn’t much proof to support these claims. A theory put forward suggests that the massaging effect of the cream coupled by the active ingredients stimulates the skin to stretch as the body grows thus preventing stretch marks.

Body parts affected

Common parts of the body where stretch marks develop are those that contain fat reserves for the body as well as parts that experience growth during pregnancy. These include stretch marks on breasts, thighs, upper arms, thighs, buttocks and belly.

Products for stretch marks removal

The millions of products claiming to remove stretch marks usually contain active ingredients that are designed to moisturize, exfoliate and promote development of new skin cells. Common ingredients include vitamin A, E, C, allantonin and glycolic acid. Some contain oils such as cocoa butter which is believed to promote skin flexibility and prevent drying out.

Stretch mark development is usually accelerated by skin dryness. So to some extent, these products play a role in removal of the scars. Since the stretch mark is simply a scar, removal of dead skin cells and promotion of the growth of new skin cells can get rid of the stretch marks to some point. But are these products effective in stretch marks removal?

Most dermatologists agree that there isn’t a single product that can completely remove stretch marks. These products can fade the stretch mark to some extent but won’t completely eliminate the scar. The same is true for home based stretch mark removal products.

So are these products worth investing in?

With the countless products available, it’s safe to say that not all live up to their claimed stretch mark elimination properties. There are however a number of products which will do a relatively good job as far as making the scars fade over time. The best thing to do when looking for a product to use is look for one containing the aforementioned ingredients and, doesn’t contain ingredients which dehydrate the skin such as alcohol.

Top Supplements for Anxiety Relief

We’ve all had anxious moments in life. Whether it’s when preparing for an interview or even watching your favorite soccer team play against your biggest rivals; it’s a natural feeling and, usually comes and goes away. There are however individuals whose anxiety episodes are more exaggerated. That is, they tend to last longer and have extreme symptoms compared to those seen during normal anxiety. Besides mental distress, the patient experiences physical symptoms which include shortness of breath and anxiety chest pain. Before going into detail about the top supplements used to treat anxiety and its symptoms, I’d like to take a look at the chest pain caused by anxiety.

What causes chest pain during anxiety?

An anxiety attack triggers different processes in the body. One is hyperventilation as the body tries to get more oxygen to the organs. The result is constriction of the blood vessels applying more pressure on the heart. As a result, excruciating chest pain can result. Another cause of chest pain during anxiety is bloating that results as a symptom. The excess gas in the stomach enables it to expand applying pressure on surrounding organs and tissue including the lungs and diaphragm. This causes chest pain. In some instances, the chest pain has no apparent cause. It’s all in the patients head. This is especially common in patients who have had similar attack and, expect to experience chest pain every time they are anxious.

The chest pain might have similar symptoms with heart attacks. However, in most cases chest pain caused by anxiety remains concentrated in the chest cavity compared to heart attack chest pain which travels through the shoulders and arms.

Top supplements for anxiety

L-theanine is one of the most efficient natural ways of treating anxiety. This compound is commonly found in green tea. Studies show that L-theanine helps to reduce rising heart rate and lower blood pressure, both of which are symptoms of anxiety. In addition, the compound triggers release of anti-anxiety chemicals from the brain which helps a person feel calmer.

Hops contain oils which have a sedative effect. Commonly used in beer, hops have been found to help reduce anxiety symptoms in patients. The sedative effect usually helps the patient become more relaxed. Taken in adequate amounts, hops can induce sleep. This herb has a bitter taste and is best taken with other anxiety busting herbs like chamomile.

Valerian is another herb that’s used to treat anxiety. It works more or less in the same way as hops ut is much stronger. This herb has a nasty smell and taste and is usually taken with other herbs such as chamomile or as a capsule.

Chamomile although effective when used with other herbs can also reduce anxiety when used on its own. This herb contains active ingredients which bind to brain receptors blocking the effects of chemicals released during anxiety.

Magnesium rich diets can also help treat anxiety. This mineral promotes a healthy nervous system. Some studies show that patients with low magnesium tended to have severe symptoms associated with anxiety and panic attacks.

Is Watching Too Much TV Causing Lower Back Pain?

I can’t say that I don’t like TV. In fact, I can spend hours each week watching my favorite shows. If late, I have been having a dull pain in my lower back when I remain seated in front of my TV. The pain usually goes away after I stand and do some stretching exercises. My main concern is whether sitting in front of my TV for a couple hours each day will have long term health effects such as lower left back pain.

Why the lower back

The lower back is quite sensitive. Unlike the upper back which works in conjunction with the ribcage to support the head and neck, the lower back consists of a set of lumbar bones and muscles. These work together to support the upper body.

This body part is subject to tons of pressure daily. Any body position including sleeping applies some form of pressure on the lumbar disks in the lower back.

When watching TV

As mentioned, any body position will apply pressure on the lower back. We all have our favorite position for watching TV. However, some positions are highly likely to induce lower back pain than others. For example, a person is seated on a couch. The sitting position is such that only the upper back comes into contact with the back rest. This position applies more pressure on the lower back than is the whole back touches the backrest.

To reduce risk of developing lower back pain, sitting upright with both feet planted on the ground is recommended. This way, the whole back retains its neutral position. This allows the upper body’s weight to be distributed between the lower back and the pelvic area. Positions to avoid when watching TV include slouched forward towards the screen, leaning back with feet elevated and sleeping.

Other causes of back pain

Besides wrong posture back pain can be caused by the following.

Lifting heavy objects can cause lower back pain. In this instance, it’s all about the position you take when lifting the heavy object. To lift safely, it’s recommended the you bend the knees slightly to balance out the weight throughout the lower body. Lifting a heavy object the wrong way can strain the lower back muscles causing pain and inflammation.

Being overweight is another common cause of back pain. As mentioned, the lower back is quite sensitive and, carries the whole upper body’s weight. Excess weight and reduces core strength can apply excess pressure on the lower back muscles. This can result in right side back pain and weight loss is the only remedy. Besides obesity, pregnancy can also cause lower back pain in women.

Back pain can also be a symptom of an underlying health condition. Some of these conditions include kidney stones, spinal stenosis, herniated disk, cancer of the spine and, conditions affecting the female reproductive organs. In such instances, treating the underlying health condition will ne needed in order to get rid of the pain.

Watching too much TV isn’t necessarily the reason why I have back pain. However, how long I sit watching TV and my sitting position play a huge role in determining whether I develop lower back pain or not.

Common Causes of Pain in Shoulder Blades

Wrestlers and other fighting professionals we see on TV are exposed to different types of injuries. Mixed martial artists in particular use submission techniques which can cause serious damage to their opponent. One fight in particular caught my eye when I watched it on TV. The martial artist used a submission move which resulted in a TKO. For the loser, he left the cage with a dislocated arm. I can only imagine the pain he was feeling.

That scene aside, it got me thinking about different causes of pain in shoulder blades. I have experienced pain in the past but mine wasn’t caused by a dislocated arm. After conducting some research, here is some of the stuff I found.


Shoulder subluxation is the term that also refers to shoulder dislocation. In this case, the dislocation is temporary and partial. This condition occurs when the arm is held at an abnormal position, if you fall on an outstretched arm or, direct trauma to the shoulder joint. Some of the symptoms of this condition include pain and weakness in the affected arm, looseness of the shoulder and, a feeling that the shoulder joint is out of place. The treatment regime involves strengthening the shoulder joint through simple exercises. To reduce pain, applying ice for a few minutes daily and anti inflammatory drugs are administered.

Pain between shoulder blades can be caused by strained and sore back muscles. The shoulder blades are supported by groups of muscles which work together to promote arm movements. Exercising, sudden muscle spasms and poor posture can cause straining of these muscles leading to pain between the shoulder blades.

Heart conditions have been documented to cause pain in the shoulders, back and arms. This is commonly known as referred pain. Such conditions include the onset of heart attack and pericarditis. This referred pain is often seen in women than men.

Lung conditions can also caused referred pain that is felt in the shoulders. One form of lung cancer known as pancoast tumors has been highly documented to cause pain in shoulders. This cancer is characterized by growth of tumors on the lungs surface. The tumor might also spread onto the scapula causing what is known as bone metastases causing further pain.

Conditions affecting the bones can also cause pain in the shoulder blades. Such conditions include arthritis, osteoporosis and fracture of the scapula bones.

Treatment methods

The treatment method for shoulder blade pain is largely determined by the cause of the pain. However, the most common methods used to keep the pain under control include the following.

Pain relievers and anti inflammatory drugs can be prescribes to relieve pain. In some instances, the doctor can prescribe antibiotics to treat infections that might have occurs on the shoulder.

Exercises and massage can help to reduce pain in the affected area. Exercises and massage trigger the release of pain relieving chemicals into the bloodstream. In addition, exercise builds muscle strength which can be essential for the prevention of back muscle strains.

A Guide to the Tailors Bunion

At the end of a long day, all we want to do is rest our feet and watch TV. It just has a soothing effect to let the feet “breathe” after a long day tucked inside shoes. For some people, rather than let their feet rest, evenings are usually spent nursing sore feet and toes. Bunions especially cause immense discomfort for many people. There is one uncommon but equally irritating form of bunions called the tailors bunion or bunionette.

What causes bunions?

Foot experts agree that bunions are caused by wearing ill fitting shoes. The reason for this is that it’s a condition that develops over time. In addition, studies conducted showed that bunions are rare in people from cultures that rarely wear shoes. There are other theories suggesting that bunions can also be caused by hereditary health conditions affecting the feet. Conditions such as flat foot and elongated metatarsal bones have been suggested as possible causes. However, these conditions only increase chances tat the condition will develop if the affected person wears ill fitting shoes for a long time.

About the bunionette

The tailor’s bunion derives its name from an action early tailors did. Tailors were known to love crossing their legs while seated. This was such that their little toes touched the ground. Constant abrasion from the ground caused reddish blisters on the little toes and thus the name.

This type of bunion affects the little toe. It develops when the fifth metatarsal protrudes outwards. This forces the little toe to point towards the other toes. A protrusion then forms at the metatarsal-toe joint. This protrusion can be inflamed, red and painful especially if it’s squeezed by tight shoes.


Unlike ordinary bunions, it’s believed that people with a hereditary structural deformity of the foot are more likely to get bunionettes. That’s why they are rarer. In such instances, the fifth metatarsal bone enlarges and protrudes outwards. As a result the little toe is forced to point inwards resulting in a protrusion at the joint. Another instance where this type of bunion develops is when there is a bony outgrowth on the side of the fifth metatarsal. Although these are the believed causes, symptoms such as pain and inflammation can occur if the patient wears tight fitting shoes.


Since it’s believed that the bunionette is more of a heredity thing, people in families with a history of this condition are more likely to develop it. Wearing proper fitting shoes is another way of prevention.


Besides the protrusion, secondary symptoms that include swelling, redness and pain can be experienced. These are usually prominent when the patient wears tight fitting shoes which rub against the skin in the affected area causing inflammation.


Treatment of bunionettes usually revolves around providing relief foe the secondary symptoms. Some of the recommended treatment methods include wearing shoes that are wide enough at the front. Application of ice and taking painkillers can be used to relieve pain and inflammation. In severe cases where pain and inflammation persist, surgery may be recommended to correct the bunionette.

Common Allergies That Affect Man

While watching TV the other day an ad that’s being aired frequently claimed that most Americans have an allergy of some sort. I didn’t have any medical evidence to refute the claims but, believed that there was some truth in the claims. Of course the ad was selling a drug that was meant to treat allergy symptoms. The thought of most people having an allergy led me to think, “What are the most common allergies.” This led me to researching two of the most common allergies affecting people today.

yeast allergyYeast allergy

Allergic reaction to yeast is on the rise today. The reason for this is that yeast is found in many of the foods and beverages consumed today. Yeast is a fungus which is usually safe for consumption. However, it might overgrow and become potentially harmful to the body.

Allergy to yeast can come in either of two ways. First, the fungus Candida albicans which is found on the body can overgrow leading to yeast infection and eventual allergy. Second, yeast allergy can result from consuming everyday foods such as bread, cake or taking beverages containing yeast such as beer and vinegar.


Symptoms can manifest themselves within minutes or hours after coming into contact with yeast. Some of the common symptoms affect the digestive system and they include bloating, indigestion, heartburn, diarrhea and stomach cramps. If the amount of yeast consumed is high enough, it can reach the bloodstream and move to different areas of the body. Some of the symptoms that result include fatigue, dizziness, joint and muscle pains and, shortness of breath.

Prevention and treatment

The main prevention measures include avoiding foods that contain yeast. Ensuring that the body’s skin maintains proper pH also ensures that the fungi-bacteria balance is maintained.

Treatment of allergy will usually involve taking antifungals which will counter the effects.

Corn allergy

Like yeast, corn is found in many products including food and medicines. Although not very common, allergic reactions to corn aren’t unheard of. The reactions can be mild or severe with cases of anaphylactic shock being reported in severe cases.

Some of the products containing corn include the following. Cereals, jams, syrups, snacks and processed meats, flavored dairy products and, cookies.

Corn allergy symptoms

Some of the common symptoms associated with corn allergy include the following. Initial symptoms affect the digestive system including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. As the allergen find their way into the blood stream through the thin walls of the mouth and digestive system, symptoms such as itching and swelling of lips and tongue can result. The swelling can advance to the respiratory tract causing difficulty breathing. Other symptoms include dizziness. In severe cases, anaphylaxis which is a life threatening condition can result.

Prevention and treatment

There is no clear cut way of avoiding corn as it’s found in many foods and products. However, ensuring to avoid foods that might contain corn and, preparing your own foods can go a long way in preventing allergic reactions. In case of allergy, medical attention will be necessary where medications such as epinephrine can be administered.

Conditions That Affect the Arms

The other day, I happened to walk into a medical documentary. Unfortunately, I only caught the last minutes before it ended. The episode was focusing on different forms of pain that can be felt on either arm. What intrigued me was that pain in one arm can be referred from other organs in the upper body. For example, pain in right arm can be a symptom of heart attack. Id thought of looking at conditions that can affect either arm and came up with the following.

Heart attack is one of the serious health conditions that can affect the arms. The onset of heart attack can present itself as numbness in left arm and left side of the thoracic cavity. The numbness then transforms into a sharp pain which can be felt in the left shoulder and jaw. Heart attack usually occurs when the heart isn’t receiving enough blood to allow it to function normally.

Pain and numbness can also be caused by problems of the nervous system. Compressed and damaged nerve endings can be a source of pain at the particular area of compression. There are other instances where the pain can be the result of nerve damage not within the arm but in a different part of the body such as the liver.

Poor supply of blood to the arms will also cause numbness and tingling. Compression of blood vessels limits the amount of oxygen supplied to tissues in the arms. As such, the patient will experience numbness and pain in the affected arm.

Stroke although affecting the brain can cause numbness and pain in the arms. Stroke deprives the brain of oxygen. This can negatively affect the relay of signals between the brain and the arms. As a result, a sensation of numbness and at times pain in the affected arm occurs.

Crutch palsy is a condition that affects the radial nerve. This nerve passes under the underarm and is responsible for relaying signals between the brain and the arms. Persons using crutches are at higher risk of developing this condition as the supports can apply pressure on the nerves. This leads to numbness and tingling in the arms.

The cubital tunnel syndrome is another condition that can lead to pain and numbness in the arms. This condition occurs when the ulnar nerve is compressed at the elbow joint. This leads to numbness and possible pain in the forearms and hands. Reducing compression usually provides relief.

Overuse of a specific hand can result in painful conditions such as golfers elbow and tennis elbow. This results after the muscles and tendon around the elbow area become strained from overuse. Golfers elbow affects the inside part of the elbow joint while tennis elbow affects the outer bony area of the elbow. The painful symptoms can last for a number of weeks before they fade.

The mentioned are just a few of the conditions that can affect the arms causing pain or numbness. Some of these are directly linked to the arms while others are referred pain from other body parts. In most instances, medical attention will be necessary to identify the cause and find treatment options for these conditions.

What You Need To Know About the Pictus Catfish

The other day, I was watching a wildlife documentary on fish that are commonly kept as pets. Several catfish species were featured and one in particular caught my eye, the Pictus catfish. I had previously seen them in aquariums but didn’t take much notice as I thought them just another catfish species. However, the documentary sparked my interest in this catfish species. I did some research on these and I’m currently waiting for my group of 5 Pictus cats to arrive sometime next week. Before placing my order, I had to make sure they were ideal for my home aquarium. I did conduct some research which revealed the following.


The Pictus traces its origins in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and can be found in Peru, Columbia and Brazil. These cats favor freshwater streams and live in shoals.


This catfish has a silvery body that’s covered with black spots. Two subspecies are identifiable, the large spotted subspecies which is more common in aquariums and is smaller than the small spotted subspecies. Their bodies are slimy and aren’t covered with scales. An adult Pictus grows to about 5 inches in length. Females are generally larger than the males.

Other distinct features include the extremely long barbells which can grow as far as the caudal fin. Their dorsal and pectoral find have sharp spines which makes netting these fish difficult. The spines on the dorsal fin have mild venom which can cause irritation and inflammation if you get pricked by mistake. They also feature a forked tail and downturned mouth which makes foraging for food easy.


Like most catfish, Pictus cats are omnivorous. They will feed on anything including live catfish bait like worms and invertebrates. Sinking fish food is recommended for cats that are held in aquariums as they are bottom feeders. Being an omnivore, this catfish will feed on smaller fish if provided with the opportunity. It’s therefore recommended that you place it in the same aquarium with same size or larger peaceful fish.


The Pictus cat is a highly active fish. Having a large enough aquarium is necessary as this fish loves swimming fast. It’s a social fish and prefers living in schools. A group of up to 8 fish can work well for a large aquarium. However, the Pictus can live on its own with other fish. It however tends to be shy and hide away when it’s the only Pictus in the aquarium. This is a nocturnal fish and tends to keep hidden during the day.

Best aquarium conditions

This catfish thrives in freshwater conditions with a good supply of oxygen. The aquarium can be planted with driftwood and some rocks which provide hiding spaces for the Pictus. A layer of fine sand at the bottom is a good substrate as it will not damage the delicate barbels. The water pH should be between 7.0 and 7.5. Being a freshwater fish, avoid adding salt or using medicines that contain copper as these can harm its skin and barbells.

Different Types of Taste Disorders

The sense of taste is important to every person. Taste is what motivates most people to eat a particular food or to dislike a certain kind of food. That is why when a person experiences a taste disorder, it could take a significant impact on his or her overall health because eating can become abnormal.

More than 200,000 patients visit doctors in the US every year due to problems with their taste and smell. These two problems are somewhat related. Some people have mistaken a smell disorder for a taste disorder and only discover their real problem after they have seen their doctor.

Every person has taste cells or gustatory cells in the mouth. These cells are clustered together in the taste buds located at the upper portion of the mouth along the throat lining and in the tongue. When a person chews food or drink, these cells stimulate special sensory receptors that send a message to the brain to identify the taste. Every taste cell has receptors that will respond to any one of the basic tastes, namely sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami or savory. At birth, it is estimated that a person has about 10,000 taste buds and they start to die out after the age of 50.

However, for various reasons, a person may suffer from a taste disorder. It could develop after an illness affecting the middle ear or the respiratory system. Others have it after a head injury or after a surgery affecting the nose, ear and throat. When a person is exposed to certain chemicals, medication, antihistamines or antibiotics, there is also the risk of developing taste disorder afterwards. Radiation therapy in the neck or head of cancer patients may also cause this disorder. In addition, a person may also be born having this condition. It can also develop over time due to dental problems or poor hygiene.

There are different types of taste disorders that could affect people. One of the most common is the phantom taste perception which is characterized by a lingering taste even though you have nothing in your mouth. Some people also experience metal taste in mouth or sweet taste in mouth. There are also cases when a person has reduced ability in the five different kinds of taste and this condition is called hypogeusia. There is also a condition called dysgeusia when a person’s sense of smell and taste is distorted. In this condition, there is a persisting foul, rancid, salty or metallic taste in the mouth. At worst, some people cannot identify any taste at all when they are suffering from ageusia. But it is a rare case because the loss of smell is more common than loss of taste.

A doctor who specializes in taste and smell disorders is an otolaryngologist. An otolaryngologist specializes in conditions affecting the nose, ear, throat, neck and head. Normally, the doctor will measure the lowest taste quality that a patient can detect to recognize the type of disorder. He may also conduct a physical examination of your nose, ears and throat as well as dental examination to assess your oral hygiene. Once a physical test is done, that patient may also have to undergo a series of other tests to support his diagnosis.

A taste disorder may or may not be treatable depending on its cause. But in all cases, you should see your doctor if you are experiencing it so that he or she can give you the best advice for its proper remedy or treatment.

Causes and Treatment for Scalp Acne

There are many TV advertisements about facial care products that can help prevent or treat acne and pimples on the face. However, little is known about scalp acne and its treatment. Although it is not as common as acne on the face, this skin problem may affect anyone. It may not be directly noticeable by other people but this type of acne can be as painful and annoying as nodular acne when touched. This poses added challenges when combing and grooming the hair. In addition, it can also result to hair loss if not treated properly.

Acne on the scalp develops just like acnes on other parts of the body. When the pores of the skin are clogged with oil and dirt, they will cause the follicles to swell up, developing into acne. Because hair traps dirt and oil, treating this kind of acne can be more challenging as they tend to keep coming back.

There are commercial products as well as home remedies that can help treat acnes on the scalp. Any kind of mild shampoo can be used to remove oil and dirt on the scalp which can clog the pores. Most over-the-counter acne treatments can also be used to treat scalp acnes. However, it is best to avoid products with benzoyl peroxide because they can result to discoloration of the hair.

During treatment, maintaining a short hairstyle can be helpful as it allows for easy application of topical medications without trapping dirt and oil which can clog again the pores. Avoiding oily hair styling products is also recommended. Instead, the best options are petroleum-free products or oil-free noncomedogenic products because they don’t clog the pores. And before sleeping at night, the hair must be washed to remove dirt, oil and other topical products that could be trapped in the pores.

Aside from using commercial products to get rid of scalp acnes, there are also natural remedies available. One of the most popularly used natural remedies is a mixture of equal parts water and apple cider vinegar. This solution is massaged on the scalp and then rinsed after at least five minutes. It is effective in disinfecting and recovering the pH balance of the scalp as well as in removing dirt. Another known remedy is the use of tea tree oil which contains anti-fungal, antiseptic, antiviral and antibacterial properties. This oil can be diluted in water and then massaged on the scalp before rinsing. Honey and cinnamon can also help treat acne on the scalp. Honey and cinnamon are usually mixed to form a paste and then applied on the scalp. It should sit on the affected area for at least 15 minutes before rinsing to get the best effect.

The effects of commercial and natural remedies may vary from one person to another. Some people may find natural remedies to be more effective on them than commercial products, while it could be the opposite for others. If the acne still prevails despite trying all known remedies, it is best to see a dermatologist for proper treatment.

How to Deal with a Controlling Partner

controlling a relationship

In many television sitcoms, there are always scenes about relationship breakups. One of the common reasons for breakups is that one of the parties takes control over the relationship rather than maintaining mutual control. In real life, relationship breakups due to controlling partners also happen. They happen in boyfriend-girlfriend relationships and even among married couples.

Healthy relationships are those that are based on mutual love and trust. But a controlling girlfriend, boyfriend or spouse does not know this. People like that want to dictate and control their partners to the extent of hurting them physically or emotionally. They are not the type of people you want to be with for the rest of your life. That is why it is important that you should know right from the start of your relationship if you are dealing with a controlling person. If you still have a chance, back-off from the relationship as soon as possible. But if you are already too much involved in the relationship, there are remedies that you still could do.

Before anything else, you should first know the 10 signs of a controlling boyfriend. The same may apply to a controlling girlfriend or spouse:

  1. He always puts you down.
  2. He does not like you to have friends or to spend time with friends.
  3. He tells you all his secrets including passwords and expects you to do the same.
  4. He wants to be informed of all your whereabouts.
  5. You often hear him saying “I told you so,” so you will feel at a loss without him.
  6. He is never wrong.
  7. He is making all the decisions for you.
  8. He breaks down and cries whenever you would take a stand and would not follow his advice.
  9. He will make you feel that you cannot achieve something important without him.
  10. You start believing that he is the only one who can make you feel happy.

As early as possible, you should already assess those criteria and ask yourself if the relationship is worth continuing or not. You should know that it is hard or almost impossible to change a person who has a controlling attitude. Trying to do so may even lead to serious relationship problems. What you can do is to change the way you deal with your relationship. Do not let yourself be controlled, but influence your partner instead of you being influenced.

However, when you still frequently experience relationship problems leading to physical and emotional abuses despite all your good efforts, you may have to decide ending the relationship. This may be the hardest part to do at that moment but think of it as beneficial to you. The sooner you can do it, the better it will be. In some cases, a serious controller threatens to commit suicide if his partner leaves, or threatens to make his partner’s life miserable. And serious controllers usually do it, as we often hear about suicide cases caused by relationship breakups.

Overcoming your problem and learning how to get over someone is not that easy to do. It would take courage and a lot of support from your friends and family.

Lionhead Bunny Facts

There have been several television programs that show a differently new breed of rabbits called Lionhead bunnies. Lionhead bunnies are gaining in popularity as household pets in the US, even though their breeding program is still relatively new. In fact, it was only in 2005 when the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) recognized the tortoise color of this breed. These rabbits are well-loved for their soft and fluffy fur balls which make them look really adorable.

Lionheads originate from Belgium and they are a crossbreed between a Belgian Dwarf and a Swiss Fox. They usually flaunt their long mane which surrounds their small head just like a lion, earning them their name. Lionheads are small bunnies with small legs and long ears that could measure up to 3 ½ inches. They can also weigh up to four pounds. They come in different colors including tortoise, magpie, seal point, Japanese and other shades of ray, brown or white. There are also two known kinds of Lionheads, namely the Lionhead Lop Rabbit and the Mini Lionhead Lop Rabbit.

Anyone who is an animal lover will easily like Lionheads. They can very well be a suitable house pet because of their natural friendly and sociable characteristics. Unlike other pets such as cats and dogs that have a tendency to bite or scratch unfamiliar people, Lionheads are generally safe around people including children. They are also cute and cuddly and would make a wonderful lap pet. You can let them loose inside your house but it is important to provide appropriate bedding material for them. You could use unscented wood chips which are also commonly used by many breeders. Also provide a regular source of clean water for them.

Proper diet and grooming are important to keep Lionheads physically fit and looking their best. Low protein rabbit pellet and fresh timothy hay are normally sufficient for their needs. A low protein pellet is the better choice over high protein pellet to avoid obesity. The hay promotes healthy digestion and helps avoid digestive problems. Adding fresh grass as well as fruits and vegetables to their diet from time to time can also help boost their immune system. For grooming, brushing their hair at least twice a week could help prevent knots and mats from forming. Grooming is especially needed during shedding to avoid wool-block which is a potential hazard to their health.

Just like dogs, Lionheads are teachable and can easily learn simple tricks. The most basic training involves teaching them where to defecate to avoid messes inside the house. Breeders are still continually studying other training techniques which they can teach these animals.

For those who are interested to own a Lionhead, knowing some basic bunny facts is very important to know what to expect to have them as a pet. You could then search for a reputable breeder in your area where you may purchase your first Lionhead. You may also acquire them from pet stores.

Bronchitis vs Pneumonia

Television advertisements about cough syrups normally recommend drinking these medications when a person is coughing. But do you know that there are cases of coughing when cough syrups may not be effective as treatment? That is true in the case of pneumonia and bronchitis. They are two conditions that commonly affect the respiratory system which includes the lungs, bronchial tubes, pleural cavity, upper respiratory tract and trachea.

Although bronchitis and pneumonia manifest the same symptoms, they are two entirely different conditions with different risk factors and treatments. Bronchitis is less serious than pneumonia. Certain bronchitis remedies can easily treat the condition, whereas treatment for pneumonia can be difficult depending on certain factors. That is why it is important to know and understand the difference between bronchitis vs pneumonia for early detection and proper treatment.

bronchitisBronchitis is an inflammation in the air passage or the bronchial tubes where air is carried to the lungs. The inflammation may be caused by viral or bacterial infection and other irritants such as smoke. In addition, people who suffer from respiratory infections or colds are more prone to developing bronchitis. Pneumonia, on the other hand, is a lung infection leading to buildup of pus or fluids in the air sacs. Causes may include parasites, virus, bacteria and other microorganisms.

Knowing the symptoms of each condition can greatly help identify the condition a person is suffering from. For bronchitis, early symptoms include dry cough which can be painful in the chest, ribs and abdomen. After a few days, the dry cough normally clears and is followed by green or yellowish-gray sputum. The cough could linger for several days or even months, depending on how chronic the condition is. Sometimes, coughing is also associated with chills and moderate fever.

Pneumonia patients also experience dry coughing which may gradually worsen and become a productive cough. Production of sputum is also expected and it is usually greenish or rust colored. In its early stages, pneumonia usually shows flu-like symptoms. As the condition becomes worse, the patient may experience high-grade fever accompanied with chattering teeth and chills. Other symptoms include chest pain, difficulty in breathing, deep breathing, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting and palpitation. In severe cases, the color of the skin may also change because of the poor oxygen in the blood.

Correct diagnosis of bronchitis or pneumonia is normally done by examining the sputum. If pneumonia is suspected, a chest x-ray may also be necessary to confirm the findings. Blood tests are normally performed to know the severity of the condition. If bronchitis is suspected, the patient may have to undergo a pulmonary function test which measures how the lungs are working.

Treatment for bronchitis or pneumonia greatly differs depending on what causes the condition, such as if it is bacterial or viral. If bronchitis is caused by bacteria, it is normally treated with antibiotics while if the cause is virus, the treatment is normally just to reduce the inflammation in the bronchial tubes. Bacterial pneumonia is also treated with antibiotics, and antiviral drugs are prescribed when caused by virus.

When dealing with bronchitis or pneumonia, proper identification of symptoms is necessary to know the possible condition of the person. And this initial diagnosis is normally confirmed by various tests conducted by medical professionals. It is only then when appropriate treatment may be employed.


Getting to Know More About Hypoallergenic Dog Food

Recently, you may have noticed some companies promoting hypoallergenic foods for dog. And many people are quite curious about this kind of food and what they are for.

Just like humans, dogs can suffer from allergies caused by certain foods. Their allergic reaction may vary depending on what causes the allergy and how much food they have eaten. To avoid these allergic reactions, dog food manufacturers were able to come up with the so-called hypoallergenic dog food.

dog food

Regular dog foods are okay for dogs as long as there are no signs of allergic reactions. Symptoms of allergies may include hives, skin rashes, paw biting, itching, nausea or vomiting and obsessive licking. Not all these symptoms may be manifested when a dog is allergic to certain foods. Normally, only one or two of these symptoms become evident. Once it is clear that the dog is allergic to certain foods, the veterinarian normally recommends feeding the animal with hypoallergenic foods.

Hypoallergenic foods are different from ordinary dog foods in that they are made with fewer ingredients. They contain novel ingredients which are produced using hypoallergenic recipes. Fewer ingredients could help dog owners identify the type of ingredients their pets may be allergic to. The novel components are ingredients that dogs are not commonly used to so they are least likely to be allergic to them. They may include ingredients like kangaroo, buffalo or pheasant meat. Finally, they generally don’t contain ingredients that are potential allergens to dogs such as dairy, chicken, beef, lamb, fish, wheat, corn, yeast and soy.

Recently, there has been an increase in demand for dog foods that are hypoallergenic as they have become a healthier option compared to regular dog foods. They do not contain artificial flavorings and preservatives which may cause allergic reactions in dogs. Also, they are mostly made from natural ingredients with no fillers. But for your dog to get the most benefit from this type of food, it is best to purchase reputable brands from legitimates sellers such as from pet stores and veterinary clinics. Some of the popular brands are listed here:

  • Avoderm – this brand is manufactured by Breeder Choice. It is known to be safe for dogs with skin and stomach allergies on certain foods. Its main ingredient is avocado and is known to contain vitamins, mineral and essential oils that are necessary for your dog’s wellness.


  • Acana Hypoallergenic – manufactured by Champion pet foods, this brand offers a variety of hypoallergenic food for different dog breeds. This product does not use artificial colors or preservatives and does not contain wheat.


  • Oriien – Oriien is also manufactured by Champion pet foods. It is clinically tested to help reduce allergies and to promote healthy skin and hair growth.


  • Pinnacle Hypoallergenic – this food is said to be made from 100% natural ingredients. It is manufactured using essential minerals and probiotics.

When a dog initially displays allergic reactions to regular dog foods, it is advised that dog owners should immediately change their dog’s diet. For some owners who are asking can dogs eat bananas if they are allergic to their food? The answer is yes and no. It would be good to see a veterinarian to help determine the right food for the animal.


What You Need to Know About Foot Sprain

Every time I watch television, I frequently hear about athletes being out of their game due to foot sprain, be it in basketball, baseball, football, hockey or others. Even some actors have experienced sprains at some point during their shootings. This condition may also affect anybody due to abnormal bending or twisting of the feet. That is why it is important to know what causes sprains and what the remedies available for sprained foot are.

A sprain on the foot is a tear of ligaments which are bands of fibrous tissues connecting the bones inside a joint. Sprains are classified in different grades depending on severity. A Grade 1 classification is when the injury causes microscopic tears in the ligaments and the pain is just fairly mild. When the ligaments become partially torn and the stretching is severe, it is classified as a Grade 2 sprain. This kind of sprain causes moderate pain. When the ligaments become completely torn such that the foot becomes unstable thereby disabling the person from standing up or walking properly, then it is classified as a Grade 3 sprain which causes severe pain on the patient. Both Grade 1 and Grade 2 sprains can heal within a week, while a Grade 3 sprain can take two months to heal.

Apart from the pain, other symptoms of foot sprains include a tender and swollen foot and blue or black discoloration of the skin or tingling feet. When you feel any of these symptoms and you have doubts that you have suffered a foot sprain, it is best to see your doctor for proper diagnosis. Your doctor will normally ask about personal information including activities you are engaged in as part of the initial checkup. Your doctor will then conduct physical examination of the sprained area and may also ask you to do certain motions. Additionally, your doctor may also request for a CT scan or MRI of the affected area to support the diagnosis.

They say that prevention is always better than cure. And in some instances, sprains are avoidable. One way to avoid sprains is by wearing stiff-soled shoes which can help stabilize the foot. Also, before starting any game or activity, it would help to do stretching or warm up exercises first. If you still suffer from sprains despite doing these safety precautions, there are certain treatments that you could take advantage of.

Right after feeling the pain on the foot, rest first from any physical activity you are doing. Apply an ice pack on the injured area to avoid swelling. If swelling develops, compress it using an elastic bandage. To relieve the pain and swelling, your doctor may also recommend taking acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

A sprain is a condition that can be prevented if you avoid twisting or excessively bending your feet. If the symptoms have not subsided within two days after applying those treatments for your foot sprain, visit your doctor for a more appropriate treatment.

Pancreatitis in Cats

Just recently, a friend of mine mentioned about her cat suffering from pancreatitis. When she mentioned that, I remembered some time ago about a television show talking about common diseases that can affect both animals and humans. And one of them is pancreatitis.

The number of cats suffering from pancreatitis seems to be on the rise as evidenced by the increasing number of diagnosed cases. It is estimated that around 40 to 70 percent of deaths in cats indicate pancreatitis as a causative factor. But some of these cats suffered pancreatic injury or damage due to other disease aside from pancreatitis.

cat with vetAlthough not as common as mange in cats, pancreatitis in cats also affect a significant number of cats worldwide. This condition is characterized by the inflammation in the pancreas which is an organ that plays a vital role in digestion and insulin production. Acute of chronic pancreatitis may affect cats regardless of breed, sex or age. Mild to severe symptoms may also just appear suddenly. These symptoms include lethargy, fever, dehydration and weight loss. You may also notice your cat’s sclera and skin turning yellowish. Some cats may also experience vomiting and difficulty in breathing. And even more serious if your cat did not have any food intake for several days. It can increase its risk of accumulation of fats in the liver resulting to lipidosis which can be fatal.

According to the television show, the causes of feline pancreatitis are not yet well understood. Based on some research, there seems to be a connection between inflammatory bowel disease and pancreatitis. Some scientists also say that this disease may be associated with obesity, high intake of fats or physical trauma in the pancreas. Certain health conditions such as diabetes mellitus, inflammation of the intestine or liver, and kidney problems may also lead to pancreatitis. The same is true with exposure to chemical toxins and intake of certain drugs.

There is no known ways yet on how to help cats avoid or prevent pancreatitis. And the prognosis for cats who suffer from pancreatitis largely depends on the severity of the symptoms. In the past, there has been difficulty in diagnosing and treating this disease. But as more and more veterinarians become knowledgeable about this condition and also with the help of modern diagnostic equipment, many cats with this condition are now properly diagnosed and treated and have completely recovered.

Veterinarians normally diagnose feline pancreatitis through blood tests. Once diagnosed, the animal is required to be hospitalized and remain in the facility until another set of blood tests will confirm that the pancreatic enzyme values of the animal are already normal. Unfortunately, even after complete recovery, this condition may recur in the future time. So, pet owners should always be on the watch for the symptoms of this disease.

Pancreatitis is a serious health condition which could affect your cat. If your cat manifests any of its symptoms, it would be good to see your veterinarian to detect the real condition of your pet. Pancreatitis could be fatal if not diagnosed as early as possible and given immediate treatment.