A Brief Introduction to the History of Television

The history of television could be said to have had its start near the end of the 19th century. Like many inventions, television didn’t happen overnight. It came in bits and pieces. For many of those still living today, television seemingly first burst upon the scene during the first years following World War II. In truth, there were television broadcasts taking place back in the 1930′s, although the viewing audiences were quite small, television sets were prohibitively expensive, and the television shows themselves were more or less novelties.

The CRT Started It All


Television could be said to have had its start with the invention of the radio, when it was discovered that voice could be transmitted over long distances through the ‘ether.’ It’s one thing to transmit voice however and quite something else to transmit an image. In 1878, a scientist named William Crookes invented the cathode ray tube (CRT). It is quite unlikely that Crookes had anything like television in mind. His purpose was to study the emission of radiation from a coated terminal called a cathode, and he needed an evacuated tube to conduct those studies. The CRT remained the central component in television technology until the advent of flat screen monitors.


The next step in the history of television occurred about a dozen years later when another scientist, Karl Ferdinan Braun developed a scanning device. Now the dot that the cathode ray formed in the cathode ray tube could be moved around, or at least up and down and sideways. Since the cathode ray beam could now be moved back and forth, forming what today is called a raster, the next logical step would be to figure out some way to modulate the beam to make it brighter or darker, thus producing an image. This didn’t happen all that quickly, although as far as the cathode ray tube itself was concerned, a number of scientists had taken up studying the device and its potential uses by the turn of the century. One such scientist, a Russian, introduced the term ‘television’ at the 1900 World’s Fair and went so far as to predict there would be color television transmissions in a hundred years’ time.


From CRT to Kinescope to Image Dissector


By 1907, cathode ray tube scanning had progressed to the point where a crude image could be viewed on a phosphorous-coated screen and 15 years later the first television transmitting tube, the iconoscope, and the first television receiver tube, the kinescope, were developed. By 1925 images of cartoon characters and recognizable images of human faces could be displayed, and moving objects were able to be displayed by 1926. A year later Philo Farnsworth applied for a patent on what would be the first compete television system. Farnsworth called it an Image Dissector. That same year, Bell Labs gave the first public demonstration of television. Herbert Hoover, yet to be president, was in attendance.


Viewing a 40 minute Program on a 2-Inch Screen


The first experimental television station, WGY-TV produced a 40-minute program in 1928. The viewing audience consisted of those clustered around four television sets. Plans were afoot at the time to broadcast “radio movies.” By 1929 RCA was broadcasting television programs two hours a day. The standard television receiver at that time had a 2-inch screen. The first color television system was demonstrated in 1929 also.


CBS began experimental programming in 1931 and NBC got into the act a year later. The first large scale news event to be televised was that of the coronation of King George VI in London in 1937. There were two thousand television sets in existence in England at the time. The Wimbledon tennis finals were also broadcast.


Television viewing slowly became more widespread in the United States by 1939 as the first major league baseball game and first NFL football game were broadcast in New York. President Roosevelt became the first president to appear on TV when the opening of the New York World’s Fair was televised. By 1941 there were an estimated 7,000 TV sets in the United States, but production was halted during World War II.


Howdy Doody, Uncle Miltie, and I Love Lucy


Events surrounding the history of television began to happen thick and fast following the end of the war. The first post-war television sets went on sale in 1946 and several networks began scheduling prime time programs. By 1947 the number of television sets in the U.S. had grown to over 44,000, and it was in 1947 that two of the more famous television programs, Howdy Doody and Meet the Press went on the air. By 1948 there were an estimated 350,000 sets in existence, Milton Berle was on the air, and cable TV was first introduced. By 1950 there were nearly 10 million sets in homes across the country.


I Love Lucy debuted in 1951 followed by the Today Show. Color television had its commercial introduction in 1954, the first satellite to send TV signals, Telstar, was launched in 1962, followed by Intelstat I in 1964. The next ten years saw the advent of the VCR, early flat-screen experiments, and the Cable News Network. The rest they say, is history.

Bronchitis vs Pneumonia

Television advertisements about cough syrups normally recommend drinking these medications when a person is coughing. But do you know that there are cases of coughing when cough syrups may not be effective as treatment? That is true in the case of pneumonia and bronchitis. They are two conditions that commonly affect the respiratory system which includes the lungs, bronchial tubes, pleural cavity, upper respiratory tract and trachea.

Although bronchitis and pneumonia manifest the same symptoms, they are two entirely different conditions with different risk factors and treatments. Bronchitis is less serious than pneumonia. Certain bronchitis remedies can easily treat the condition, whereas treatment for pneumonia can be difficult depending on certain factors. That is why it is important to know and understand the difference between bronchitis vs pneumonia for early detection and proper treatment.

bronchitisBronchitis is an inflammation in the air passage or the bronchial tubes where air is carried to the lungs. The inflammation may be caused by viral or bacterial infection and other irritants such as smoke. In addition, people who suffer from respiratory infections or colds are more prone to developing bronchitis. Pneumonia, on the other hand, is a lung infection leading to buildup of pus or fluids in the air sacs. Causes may include parasites, virus, bacteria and other microorganisms.

Knowing the symptoms of each condition can greatly help identify the condition a person is suffering from. For bronchitis, early symptoms include dry cough which can be painful in the chest, ribs and abdomen. After a few days, the dry cough normally clears and is followed by green or yellowish-gray sputum. The cough could linger for several days or even months, depending on how chronic the condition is. Sometimes, coughing is also associated with chills and moderate fever.

Pneumonia patients also experience dry coughing which may gradually worsen and become a productive cough. Production of sputum is also expected and it is usually greenish or rust colored. In its early stages, pneumonia usually shows flu-like symptoms. As the condition becomes worse, the patient may experience high-grade fever accompanied with chattering teeth and chills. Other symptoms include chest pain, difficulty in breathing, deep breathing, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting and palpitation. In severe cases, the color of the skin may also change because of the poor oxygen in the blood.

Correct diagnosis of bronchitis or pneumonia is normally done by examining the sputum. If pneumonia is suspected, a chest x-ray may also be necessary to confirm the findings. Blood tests are normally performed to know the severity of the condition. If bronchitis is suspected, the patient may have to undergo a pulmonary function test which measures how the lungs are working.

Treatment for bronchitis or pneumonia greatly differs depending on what causes the condition, such as if it is bacterial or viral. If bronchitis is caused by bacteria, it is normally treated with antibiotics while if the cause is virus, the treatment is normally just to reduce the inflammation in the bronchial tubes. Bacterial pneumonia is also treated with antibiotics, and antiviral drugs are prescribed when caused by virus.

When dealing with bronchitis or pneumonia, proper identification of symptoms is necessary to know the possible condition of the person. And this initial diagnosis is normally confirmed by various tests conducted by medical professionals. It is only then when appropriate treatment may be employed.


Getting to Know More About Hypoallergenic Dog Food

Recently, you may have noticed some companies promoting hypoallergenic foods for dog. And many people are quite curious about this kind of food and what they are for.

Just like humans, dogs can suffer from allergies caused by certain foods. Their allergic reaction may vary depending on what causes the allergy and how much food they have eaten. To avoid these allergic reactions, dog food manufacturers were able to come up with the so-called hypoallergenic dog food.

dog food

Regular dog foods are okay for dogs as long as there are no signs of allergic reactions. Symptoms of allergies may include hives, skin rashes, paw biting, itching, nausea or vomiting and obsessive licking. Not all these symptoms may be manifested when a dog is allergic to certain foods. Normally, only one or two of these symptoms become evident. Once it is clear that the dog is allergic to certain foods, the veterinarian normally recommends feeding the animal with hypoallergenic foods.

Hypoallergenic foods are different from ordinary dog foods in that they are made with fewer ingredients. They contain novel ingredients which are produced using hypoallergenic recipes. Fewer ingredients could help dog owners identify the type of ingredients their pets may be allergic to. The novel components are ingredients that dogs are not commonly used to so they are least likely to be allergic to them. They may include ingredients like kangaroo, buffalo or pheasant meat. Finally, they generally don’t contain ingredients that are potential allergens to dogs such as dairy, chicken, beef, lamb, fish, wheat, corn, yeast and soy.

Recently, there has been an increase in demand for dog foods that are hypoallergenic as they have become a healthier option compared to regular dog foods. They do not contain artificial flavorings and preservatives which may cause allergic reactions in dogs. Also, they are mostly made from natural ingredients with no fillers. But for your dog to get the most benefit from this type of food, it is best to purchase reputable brands from legitimates sellers such as from pet stores and veterinary clinics. Some of the popular brands are listed here:

  • Avoderm – this brand is manufactured by Breeder Choice. It is known to be safe for dogs with skin and stomach allergies on certain foods. Its main ingredient is avocado and is known to contain vitamins, mineral and essential oils that are necessary for your dog’s wellness.


  • Acana Hypoallergenic – manufactured by Champion pet foods, this brand offers a variety of hypoallergenic food for different dog breeds. This product does not use artificial colors or preservatives and does not contain wheat.


  • Oriien – Oriien is also manufactured by Champion pet foods. It is clinically tested to help reduce allergies and to promote healthy skin and hair growth.


  • Pinnacle Hypoallergenic – this food is said to be made from 100% natural ingredients. It is manufactured using essential minerals and probiotics.

When a dog initially displays allergic reactions to regular dog foods, it is advised that dog owners should immediately change their dog’s diet. For some owners who are asking can dogs eat bananas if they are allergic to their food? The answer is yes and no. It would be good to see a veterinarian to help determine the right food for the animal.


What You Need to Know About Foot Sprain

Every time I watch television, I frequently hear about athletes being out of their game due to foot sprain, be it in basketball, baseball, football, hockey or others. Even some actors have experienced sprains at some point during their shootings. This condition may also affect anybody due to abnormal bending or twisting of the feet. That is why it is important to know what causes sprains and what the remedies available for sprained foot are.

A sprain on the foot is a tear of ligaments which are bands of fibrous tissues connecting the bones inside a joint. Sprains are classified in different grades depending on severity. A Grade 1 classification is when the injury causes microscopic tears in the ligaments and the pain is just fairly mild. When the ligaments become partially torn and the stretching is severe, it is classified as a Grade 2 sprain. This kind of sprain causes moderate pain. When the ligaments become completely torn such that the foot becomes unstable thereby disabling the person from standing up or walking properly, then it is classified as a Grade 3 sprain which causes severe pain on the patient. Both Grade 1 and Grade 2 sprains can heal within a week, while a Grade 3 sprain can take two months to heal.

Apart from the pain, other symptoms of foot sprains include a tender and swollen foot and blue or black discoloration of the skin or tingling feet. When you feel any of these symptoms and you have doubts that you have suffered a foot sprain, it is best to see your doctor for proper diagnosis. Your doctor will normally ask about personal information including activities you are engaged in as part of the initial checkup. Your doctor will then conduct physical examination of the sprained area and may also ask you to do certain motions. Additionally, your doctor may also request for a CT scan or MRI of the affected area to support the diagnosis.

They say that prevention is always better than cure. And in some instances, sprains are avoidable. One way to avoid sprains is by wearing stiff-soled shoes which can help stabilize the foot. Also, before starting any game or activity, it would help to do stretching or warm up exercises first. If you still suffer from sprains despite doing these safety precautions, there are certain treatments that you could take advantage of.

Right after feeling the pain on the foot, rest first from any physical activity you are doing. Apply an ice pack on the injured area to avoid swelling. If swelling develops, compress it using an elastic bandage. To relieve the pain and swelling, your doctor may also recommend taking acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

A sprain is a condition that can be prevented if you avoid twisting or excessively bending your feet. If the symptoms have not subsided within two days after applying those treatments for your foot sprain, visit your doctor for a more appropriate treatment.

Pancreatitis in Cats

Just recently, a friend of mine mentioned about her cat suffering from pancreatitis. When she mentioned that, I remembered some time ago about a television show talking about common diseases that can affect both animals and humans. And one of them is pancreatitis.

The number of cats suffering from pancreatitis seems to be on the rise as evidenced by the increasing number of diagnosed cases. It is estimated that around 40 to 70 percent of deaths in cats indicate pancreatitis as a causative factor. But some of these cats suffered pancreatic injury or damage due to other disease aside from pancreatitis.

cat with vetAlthough not as common as mange in cats, pancreatitis in cats also affect a significant number of cats worldwide. This condition is characterized by the inflammation in the pancreas which is an organ that plays a vital role in digestion and insulin production. Acute of chronic pancreatitis may affect cats regardless of breed, sex or age. Mild to severe symptoms may also just appear suddenly. These symptoms include lethargy, fever, dehydration and weight loss. You may also notice your cat’s sclera and skin turning yellowish. Some cats may also experience vomiting and difficulty in breathing. And even more serious if your cat did not have any food intake for several days. It can increase its risk of accumulation of fats in the liver resulting to lipidosis which can be fatal.

According to the television show, the causes of feline pancreatitis are not yet well understood. Based on some research, there seems to be a connection between inflammatory bowel disease and pancreatitis. Some scientists also say that this disease may be associated with obesity, high intake of fats or physical trauma in the pancreas. Certain health conditions such as diabetes mellitus, inflammation of the intestine or liver, and kidney problems may also lead to pancreatitis. The same is true with exposure to chemical toxins and intake of certain drugs.

There is no known ways yet on how to help cats avoid or prevent pancreatitis. And the prognosis for cats who suffer from pancreatitis largely depends on the severity of the symptoms. In the past, there has been difficulty in diagnosing and treating this disease. But as more and more veterinarians become knowledgeable about this condition and also with the help of modern diagnostic equipment, many cats with this condition are now properly diagnosed and treated and have completely recovered.

Veterinarians normally diagnose feline pancreatitis through blood tests. Once diagnosed, the animal is required to be hospitalized and remain in the facility until another set of blood tests will confirm that the pancreatic enzyme values of the animal are already normal. Unfortunately, even after complete recovery, this condition may recur in the future time. So, pet owners should always be on the watch for the symptoms of this disease.

Pancreatitis is a serious health condition which could affect your cat. If your cat manifests any of its symptoms, it would be good to see your veterinarian to detect the real condition of your pet. Pancreatitis could be fatal if not diagnosed as early as possible and given immediate treatment.

ENFJ Relationships

When you watch various television programs, the differences in personality types of famous celebrities and other public figures are very noticeable. There are performers, achievers, counselors, introverts and extroverts among others. You could easily distinguish them even with just a few minutes of watching a particular program.

One of the most interesting personality types are those of famous achievers in their respective fields such as Oprah Winfrey, Barack Obama, Abraham Lincoln, Ronald Reagan and Peyton Manning, among others. Do you know that they share a similar personality type? Based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the personality type of these famous figures is ENFJ which stands for Extraversion, Intuition, Feeling and Judging.

ENFJ is just one of the 16 different personality types identified by the MBTI. David Keirsey, a renowned psychologist suggested that only approximately two to five percent of all people have this type of personality. Aside from the famous personalities just mentioned, you may also recognize Dr. Lisa Cuddy in the program “Dr. House,” Steve Keaton in “Family Ties,” Faye Valentine in “Cowboy Bebop,” and Jules Winnfield in “Pulp Fiction.”

Based on the definitions of ENFJ, Extraversion means that this personality has great people skills. They are warm, caring and affectionate on others. They are also outgoing and enjoy the company of others. Being on a social setting makes them feel more energized. Intuition means that they are always thinking ahead of time and into the future, rather than worrying about the present. Sometimes, they place too much focus on greater goals, causing them to lose their sight on the present and most immediate needs.  When making decisions, they often put important considerations on personal feelings rather than objective criteria. Their primary concern is more often dependent on how a decision can affect others. Finally, Judging in their personality describes their organizational and communication skills. They are organized and rely on careful planning. In their work, they feel to be in control if they are able to stick to their schedule.

ENFJ has numerous strengths, which makes many ENFJ relationships successful compared to other relationships such as INFP relationships. ENFJs are warm, affectionate, loyal, and are driven to meet the needs of others. They are also inspirational and motivational, always helping other people bring out the best in them. On the negative side, they have the tendency to become overprotective, controlling and manipulative. Sometimes, they also forget about social protocol and neglect themselves for the sake of other people.

As lovers, ENFJs are committed to their spouses or partners and are dedicated to make their relationships successful. They are also serious about their commitments. As parents, they are serious about parenting roles and are hands-on in teaching their children about values and goals. They also make a great friend as they always support and help bring out the best of others. They are fun to be with and always seek to develop close relationships with their friends.

There is so much to like about the personalities of ENFJ people. That is what makes many of them become successful leaders and motivators. Although they may also have negative traits, it is truly a treasure if you meet someone who has this personality.